Part 1 Taro gets up at six.There are two kinds of Japanese verbs; transitive and intransitive. Now we are going to learn 5 intransitive verbs : "gets up" "work" "study" "have a rest" and "go to bed". They are very important because they are basic words used every day. The simplest form of a Japanese verb is a " -masu " type. They all end the verb with " -masu " or " -imasu ".
Note; Japanese verbs never change thier forms according to the kind of the subject ( I, you, he, she, etc. ).
Note; If the subjects are pronouns, < examples; "watashi ( I )", "anata ( you )>, it is best to omit them as long as who is referred to is clear.
Note; These examples above are attached to adverbial phrases indicating time with " ni ".
Now, let's pick up the five verbs in a "masu" type and in the present tense.
Note; All these verbs above are attached to "-(i)masu". The left part of the verb is what is called "stem", which you must memorize accurately because various endings ( postfix ) are added after it. ( exception; benkyo-shi-masu *** This one consists of three parts. "shi" is the stem. I'll tell you about the details later.
Note; In Japanese language, the verbs in the present tense stands for both what you do every day and what you will do. i.e. The future tense is largely mixed up with the present.
You can also make a negative form by adding "-masen" or "-imasen".
Note; pronounce "-masen" clearly so as not to be misunderstood as "-masu".
adverbial phrases indicating time are usually put before the verb.
Note; "ni" is not always necessary. Some of the words indicating time does not require "ni".Let's practice using the words below.
Part 2 Masako studied from 9 to 5 yesterday.
The past tense form of "-masu" is -(i)mashita. and that of -masen is -(i)masendeshita. The past tense of Japanese is usually added with adverbial phrasese indicating the past, such as yesterday and last year.
Note; adverbs indicating time of the day is usually put after those indicating days, months, years, etc.
Note ; last night = 昨晩 sakuban
The negative form can be made by putting "ma" "sen" "de" and "shita". That is, "ma" represents a "-masu" type, "sen" represents negative, "de" represents combining the parts before and after "de", and "shita" represents the past. However, native Japanese speakers aren't conscious of these small details. They simply pronounce them as if they were a whole verb.
Note; the day before yesterday = おととい ototoi / this morning = 今朝 kesa
Let's practice using the words below.
Answer these questions:
何時に起きますか？nan-ji ni oki-masuka ? ( What time do you get up ? )
何時に寝ますか？nan-ji ni ne-masuka ? ( What time do you go to bed ? )昨日何時に起きましたか？kinoo nan-ji ni oki-mashitaka ? ( What time did you get up yesterday ? )
昨日何時に寝ましたか？kinoo nan-ji ni ne-mashitaka ? ( What time do you go to bed yesterday ? )
昨日６時に起きましたか？kinoo roku-ji ni oki-mashitaka ? ( Did you get up at six yesterday ? )昨日１１時に寝ましたか？kinoo juu-ich-ji ni ne-mashitaka ? ( Did you go to bed at eleven yesterday ? )