Basic Japanese

Fuji-yama by Yamashita Kiyoshi

verbs (2)

HOME > Language > Basic Japanese > Verbs (2)

Part 3 I have an apple.

Now we look at translative verbs. " o" is the most typical sign of them. First we are going to learn 7 transitive verbs : "do" "write" "read" "hear/listen" "see/look at/watch" "eat (have)" and "drink". They are very important becasue they are basic words used every day. They can also be written in a " -masu " type.

statement Japanese pronunciation
Keiko eats bread in the morning. 慶子さんは朝にパンを食べます。 Keiko-san wa asa ni pan o tabe-masu
Noboru drinks sake in the night. 登さんは晩に酒を飲みます。 Noboru-san wa ban ni sake o nom-imasu
Keiko watches TV every day. 慶子さんは毎日テレビを見ます。 Keiko-san wa mainichi terebi o mi-masu
Noboru listens to the CD tomorrow. 登さんは今晩CDを聞きます。 Noboru-san wa konban shiidii o kik-imasu
Keiko reads a newspaper in the evening. 慶子さんは晩に新聞を読みます。 Keiko-san wa ban ni shinbun o yom-imasu
Noboru writes a letter today. 登さんは今日手紙を書きます。 Noborusan wa kyoo tegami o kak-imasu
Keiko does the washiing on Monday. 慶子さんは月曜日に洗濯をします。 Keiko-san wa getuyoobi ni sentaku o shi-masu.

Note; Be careful about the position of the " o"s. Not all the objects are follwed by " o", but most of them are.

< object > o < verb > ( i ) masu


(o) shimasu
(o) kak-imasu
(o) yom-imasu
(o) kik-imasu
(o) mi-masu
(o) nom-imasu
(o) tabe-masu

Note: " (o) shi-masu " is the most versataile verb of all. It is hardly any exaggeration to say that you can make up any kinds of verbs using " (o) shi-masu ". In some cases, " o" can be dropped. Unfortunately, " shi-masu " is one of the most notorious irregular verbs.

Note : the negative form and the past tense of these translative verbs are the same as those of intranslative verbs.

some verbs comprised of " -shimasu "
verb Japanese pronunciation
study 勉強(を)します benkyoo (o) shimasu
work 仕事(を)します shigoto (o) shimasu
wash 洗濯(を)します sentaku (o) shimasu
worry 心配(を)します shinpai (o) shimasu
shop 買い物(を)します kaimono (o) shimasu
dine 食事(を)します shokuji (o) shimasu
have a walk 散歩(を)します sanpo (o) shimasu
take an exercise 運動(を)します undoo (o) shimasu
ski スキーをします sukii o shimasu
play succor サッカーをします sakkaa o shimasu

Let's practice using these words below.

table 4
words Japanese pronunciation
(steamed) rice ごはん gohan
beef steak ビフテキ bihuteki
(slices of) raw fish 刺身 sashimi
book hon
report レポート repooto
music 音楽 ongaku
radio ラジオ rajio
movie 映画 eiga
juice ジュース juusu
cola コーラ koora
coffee コーヒー koohii
tea 紅茶 koocha
green tea お茶 ocha


Part 4 What do you eat ?

When you want to ask someone what they eat, drink, see, hear, etc. you can start the question with " nani o ".

conversations Japanese pronunciation
What do you eat?

I eat humberger..



nani o tabe-masuka

hanbaagaa wo tabe-masu

What do you drink?

I drink green tea.



nani o nom-imasuka

ocha o nom-imasu

What do you see?

I watch a movie.



nani o mi-masuka

eiga o mi-masu

What do you listen?

I listen to the radio.



nani o kik-imasuka

rajio o kik-imasu

What do you do?

I have a walk.



nani o shimasuka

sanpo o shimasu

What do you read?

I read a newspaper.



nani o yom-imasuka

shinbun o yom-imasu

What do you write?

I write a letter.



nani o kak-imasuka

tegami o kak-imasu

Note; " nani o " is an object of a verb in these questions. It is usually put at the top of a sentence.

nani o < a " masu " type verb > ka

Note; Between "nani o" and "ka" come various types of verb. I'll tell you about it later.


Part 5 I watch TV at home.

There are various kinds of adverbial phrases indicating places. Look at the examples below. All the place names follow " de ".

statement Japanese pronunciation
I watch TV at home. 家でテレビを見ます。 uchi de terebi o mi-masu
I drink coffee at the office 会社でコーヒーを飲みます。 kaisha de koohii o nom-imasu
I have lunch at a restaurant. レストランで昼食を食べます。 resutoran de chuushoku o tabe-masu
I read books at school. 学校で本を読みます。 gakkoo de hon o yom-imasu
I do the shopping at a supermarket. スーパーで買い物をします。 suupaa de kaimono o shimasu

Note; Unlike " ni " , which is used to indicate time, " de " cannot be omittled.

Note ; " uchi " is also pronounced as " ie ". " uchi " makes you more comfortable than " ie ".

<the place> de < a " masu " type verb >

Let's practice using these words below.

table 5
place names Japanese pronunciation
at the hospital 病院(で) byooin de
at the convenience store コンビニ(で) konbini de
at the station 駅(で) eki de
at the bus stop バス停(で) basutei de
at the post office 郵便局(で) yuubinkyoku de
in the amusing park 遊園地(で) yuuenchi de
in the movie theater 映画館(で) eigakan de
in the game arcade ゲームセンター(で) geemu sentaa de
at the airport 空港(で) kuukoo de
in the library 図書館(で) toshokan de


Part 6 Where do you have lunch ?

If you want to make a question about a place, " doko de " is used.

conversation Japanese pronunciation
Where do you have lunch?

I have lunch at the office.



doko de chuushoku o tabe-masuka

kaisha de chuushoku o tabe-masu / kaisha desu

Where do you read books?

I read books at the library.



doko de hon o yom-imasuka

toshokan de hon o yom-imasu / toshokan desu

Note; As you have already learned, simply sying " ...desu " is very covenient, and sounds far more natural.

doko de< a " masu " type > ka


Part 7 what and where

As we have learned, by using " nani o" and " doko de ", we can make various questions. Let's practice by trying to make consecutive questions.

statement Japanese pronunciation
What do you do ?

I watch a movie.



nani o shimasuka

eiga o mi-masu

Where do you watch a movie ?

I watch one in Shibuya.



doko de eiga o mi-masuka

shibuya de eiga o mi-masu / shibuya desu

Note; As I have already noted, the present tense form in the Japanese language includes the future tense.



HOME > Language > Basic Japanese > Verbs (2)

inserted by FC2 system