Indicating ThemeHOME ＞ Language ＞ Basic Japanese ＞ Indicating theme
Part 1 Speaking of elephants, their trunks are long.
When you want to talk about an elephant, then you start with " -wa " and this indicates the beginning of a story about an elephant. In this case, " -wa " does not mean being a subject, but some topic you are going to talk about. The subject is usually described as " -ga ".
Note ; The first two examples show some general characteristics of an animal, plant, object etc. Similarly, someone's bodily traits or physical conditions can be expressed.
words; 鼻 hana = nose or trunk 背 se = the stature, height 料理 ryoori = dishes, meals おいしい oishi-i = tasty 頭 atama = someone's head 痛い ita-i = aching (adjective)
Part 2 I like eels
"wa /ga " pattern can be applied to other forms of experession. When someone has a preference for something, end the sentence with " suki-desu". In this case, the topic and the subject coincide.
words ; 日本料理 nihon-ryoori = Japanese-style dish すし sushi = vinegard fish and rice すき焼き sukiyaki = hin slice of beef cooked in a heavy iron pan with various vegetables and tofu さしみ sashimi = sliced raw fish てんぷら tempura = Japanese deep-fried food うなぎ unagi = eel スポーツsupootsu = sports 野球 yakyuu = baseball サッカー sakkaa = soccer テニス tenisu = tennis ゴルフ goruhu = golf 水泳 suiei = swimming 魚料理 sakana-ryoori = fishy repast
Note; When you answer " donna " question, you can either say individual names or just add some adjective.
Advanced expressions Instead of " suki-desu ", there are many other useful forms using " wa / ga ".
Note; "kirai-desu" is much stronger than " suki-dewa-arimasen ".
words; 日本語 nihon-go = the Japanese language
Part 3 I keep a dog as a pet
When someone posesses something that is hard to get, such as a house, a car, a diamond... (holidays and free time, which are really difficult to enjyoi in Japan ! ), then you can use a special type of expression. But when you talk about your family, friends and pets, there is another way of saying. In this case, the topic and the subject do not always coincide.
Note : When you have something small and easy to get, such as a camera, a wrist watch, stationery, then you say " < a possession > wo mot-t-eimasu " as described later
Note : When you talk about your family, " ...ga ari-masu " is often used. ex.幸子さんは三人の兄弟があります。sachiko-san wa sannin no kyoodai ga ari-masu
Part 4 I want a camera
Another example of " ...wa...ga " pattern is for the purpose of expressing whatever you want or whatever you want to have.
Note : This pattern cannot be used when the subject is the third person. ( he, she, Tooru, Masako etc.) When you talk about the third person, there is a pattern, " ... wa ... o hoshi-gatte-imasu ". ex. 花子さんは車をほしがっています。Hanako-san wa kuruma o hoshi-gatte-imasu as described later
Note : As for the negative form of " hoshi-i-desu ", see adjective Part Three.
Part 5 I want to buy a camera
While "私は恋人( = a sweetheart )がほしいです watashi wa koibito ga hoshii-desu " can be accepted, "私は結婚( = marriage )がほしいです watashih wa kekkonn ga hoshii-desu " is not correct.
Why ? In Japanese, " kekkon " is not what you can get, that is, it is not the direct object of " hoshii-desu ". There is a verb " kekkon-suru ", and this makes a new pattern.
Note; how to make " tai-desu "; nori-masu minus -masu and simply add " tai-desu "
Exercises; hataraki-masu →hataraki-tai-desu / hataraki-ta-ku-arimasen benkyoushi-masu →benkyoushi-tai-desu / benkyoushi-ta-ku-arimasen tabe-masu → tabe-tai-desu / tabe-ta-ku-arimasen yomi-masu → yomi-tai-desu / yomi-ta-ku-arimasen iki-masu → iki-tai-desu / iki-ta-ku-arimasen