Basic Japanese

Fuji-yama by Yamashita Kiyoshi

verbs (3)

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Part 8 Taro is going to the post office

The third type of verbs indicates "moving " such as come, go, return, arrive and leave. " k-imasu " is roughly equivalent to " come over ". You can use " k-imasu " only when someone or something is getting near where the speaker is.

Also, you can " ik-imasu ", which is supposed to mean " go " only when someone or something is going away from where the speaker is.

And " e " or " ni " following a place name indicates destination.

statement Japanese pronunciation
Taro is going to the post office.

< The speaker is not at the post office. >

太郎さんは郵便局へ行きます。 taroo-san wa yuubinkyoku e ik-imasu
Masako goes to the office.

< The speaker is not at the office. >

昌子さんは会社に行きます。 masako-san wa kaisha ni ik-imasu
My mother comes to Tokyo.

< The sepaker is in Tokyo. >

母は東京へ来ます。 haha wa tookyoo e k-imasu
My (elder) brother comes to the restaurant.

< The speaker is in the restaurant. >

兄はレストランに来ます。 ani wa resutoran ni k-imasu
I'm coming to your house.

< The speaker is now heading for the friend's house. >

あなたの家へ行きます。 anata no ie e ik-imasu

Note ; Be careful where the speaker is. Why is " iki-masu " used instead of " ki-masu " at the last example ?

Note; Some say " yuk-imasu " instead of " ik-imasu ".When you pronounce " ik-imasu ", the sound of " i " is very weak, so be careful not to be mistaken for "ki-masu ", in which the "k" sound is usually emphasized..

PATTERN (25/26)
< the name of a place > ( e / ni ) k-imasu
< the name of a place > ( e / ni ) ik-imasu

Look at the conversations below. Do you see the difference between " k-imasu " and " ik-imasu " ?

conversations Japanese pronunciation
When do you go to the office ?

I go to the office everyday.



itsu kaisha ni ik-imasuka

mainichi kaisha ni ik-imasu

Do you go to the office on Sundays ?

No, not on Sundays.



nichiyoo-bi wa kaisha ni ik-imasuka

nichiyoo-bi wa ( kaisha ni ) ik-imasen.

Do you come to my house tomorrow ?

Yes, I will.



ashita watashi no ie ni k-imasuka


Did Toru go to your house yesterday ?

Yes, he did.



tooru-san wa kinoo anata no ie ni ik-imashitaka

hai, k-imashita

Did Toru come to my house yesterday ?

Yes, he did.



tooru-san wa kinoo watashi no ie ni k-imashitaka

hai, ik-imashita

Where are you going today ?

I'm going to a movie theater.



kyou wa doko ni ik-imasuka

eigakan ni ik-imasu

Note ; " nichiyoo-bi wa ", not " nichiyoobi ni ". The reason for this difference will be discussed later.

Note ; When you ask someone he is heading for, " doko ni / doko e " is used.

Which is correct ? A foreigner staying in Japan is now speaking to a Japanese. A : "去年日本に行きました kyonen nihon ni ik-imashita ” B : "去年日本に来ました kyonen nihon ni k-imashita " →→→→ ( B ) is correct. The reason; "k-imasu" also means moving to the place where the other party is, not where you are.


Part 9 I go to the post office by bus.

Means of transportation is expressed with " de " following the names of buses and trains.

statements Japanese pronunciation
I go to the cityhall by bus. バスで市役所に行きます。 basu de shiyakusho ni ik-imasu
I go to school by bicycle. 自転車で学校に行きます。 jitensha de gakkoo ni ik-imasu
I go to the office by train. 電車で会社に行きます。 densha de kaisha ni ik-imasu
I go to the hospital by taxi. タクシーで病院に行きます。 takushii de byooin ni ik-imasu
I go to the post office on foot. 歩いて郵便局に行きます。 aru-ite yuubinkyoku ni ik-imasu

Note; " aru-ite " is a special form of a verb " aruk-imasu " ( walk ). I'll dicuss it later.

PATTERN (27/28)
< means of transportation > ( de ) k-imasu
< means of transportation > ( de ) ik-imasu
conversations Japanese pronuncication
How do you go to the department store ?

I go there by subway.



nani de depaato e ik-imasuka

chkatetsu de ik-imasu

Note;" nani de " is a proper form of making questions when you ask someone by what means of transportation he takes.


Part 10 When did you come to Japan ?

" itsu " is a question asking about time. There are many ways of asking the day, month and year.

statement Japanese pronunciation
When did you come to Japan ? いつ日本に来ましたか。 itsu nihon ni k-imashitaka
When do you drink tea ? いつお茶を飲みますか。 itsu ocha o nom-imasuka
When do you have breakfast ? いつ朝食を食べますか。 itsu chooshoku o tabe-masuka
What time do you get up ? 何時に起きますか。 nan-ji ni oki-masuka
What day of the month did you go to Osaka ? 何日に大阪へ行きましたか。 nan-nichi ni oosaka e ik-imashitaka
What day of the week do you go to supermarket ? 何曜日にスーパーへ行きますか。 nan-yoobi ni suupaa e ik-imasuka
In what month do you go to France ? 何月にフランスに行きますか。 nan-gatsu ni furansu ni ik-imasuka

Note; Remember the difference between the present "-masu" and the past "-mashita".

PATTERN (29/30)
itsu < a verb > ka
nan < the name of time > ni < a "masu" type verb > ka


Part 11 I went to the station to buy a ticket.

If you want to show purpose, you can use " ni ". But this " ni " is not the same as the " ni " expressing time or place. Look at the examples below.

statement Japanese pronunciation
I went to the station to buy a ticket. 駅へ切符を買いに行きました。 eki e kippu o ka-i ni iki-mashita
Masako went to the department store to see cosmetics. 昌子さんはデパートへ化粧品を見に行きました。 masako-san wa depaato e keshoohin o mi ni ik-imashita
What did you go to the library for ?

I went to the library to borrow a book..



toshokan e nani shi ni ik-imashitaka

hon o kari ni ik-imashita

Where did you go to have lunch ?

I went to a soba shop to have lunch.



doko e chuushoku o tabe ni ik-imashitaka

sobaya e chuushoku o tabe ni ik-imashita

Note; Look at how " ... ni " is made.

example 1 <買います ka-imasu →買い ka-i →買いに ka-i ni > 

example 2 < 食べます tabe-masu →食べ tabe →食べに tabe ni >

example 3 < します shimasu →し shi →しに shini >

Did you get how to make " ni " for the pupose ? You simply take away " masu " from a masu type verb and and add "ni" to it. Don't forget to add " i " if there is one.

Note; As you see in 「駅へ」 or 「デパートへ」, " (purpose) " usually comes after " ...e (place) ".

< place > e < a " (i)masu " type verb minus "masu" > ni ik-imasu / k-imasu

Note ; This pattern can be applied to other verbs.

Let's practive using the words below.

words Japanese pronunciation
soba (noodle) shop そば屋 soba-ya
udon (noodle) shop うどん屋 udon-ya
beef bowl shop 牛丼屋 gyuudon-ya
hamberger shop ハンバーガーショップ hanbaagaa-shoppu
shop serving home cooking meals 定食屋 teishoku-ya
curry and rice shop カレーショップ karee-shoppu
pub 居酒屋 izaka-ya
coffee shop コーヒーショップ koohii-shoppu
tea shop 喫茶店(old-fashioned) kissaten
restaurant レストラン resutoran / lesutoran


Part 12 What do you say to going to a coffee shop ?

" -masenka " and " -mashoo " are expressions for invitation or proposition.

statement Japanese pronunciation
What do you say to going to a tea shop ? 喫茶店に行きませんか。 kissaten ni ik-imasennka
Let's go to a coffee shop. コーヒーショップに行きましょう。 koohii shoppu ni ik-imashoo
Why don't you come to my house ? わたしの家へ来ませんか。 watashi no ie e k-imasenka
Won't you come to my house to have dinner tonight ? 今晩わたしの家へ夕食を食べに来ませんか。 konban watashi no ie e yuushoku o tabe ni k-imasenka

Note; " -masenka " is originally a question form of negative " -masen ".

PATTERN (32/33)
< a verb stem > (i)masenka
< a verb stem > (i)mashoo



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